The redevelopment of Dharavi has been delayed for nearly 20 years. Past Dharavi Development Plan (DDP) announcements have been closely linked to elections. He made headlines again for the impending local elections in Mumbai and his 2024 parliamentary elections. His previous BJP-Sena administration submitted his revised DDP in 2018, but the Maha Vikas Aghadi (MVA) government canceled it.
Again, after the political drama in Maharashtra, the BJP-Shinde Shiv Sena government announced the project and issued the relevant government resolution dated 28 September 2022. In the absence of a clearly defined program, the current government has launched the heavily delayed Dharavi Redevelopment Project (DRP) and other such infrastructure projects in the state to attract voters.
Among its working-class population, Dharavi has never been a BJP or Sena stronghold. About 30% of Dharavi’s population is Muslim, 6% Christian, and the remainder Hindu. Hindus are primarily Dalits who work in caste-based occupations such as tanneries, leather, pottery, and recycling.
Dharavi has a population of over 1 million people made up of leather goods makers, recyclers, potters, clothing makers and many other small manufacturing sectors and a huge slum population working outside Dharavi. The land is a mix of government land and private land owners, plus Koliwada.
In slum and non-slum areas, there are different forms of residence, including land and tenement ownership. Commercial activities and settlements are also complex. Redevelopment plans seem to treat his increased FSI as a magic wand solution for creating amenities and infrastructure for overcrowding, slum redevelopment, and open markets. A delayed start to the project has created a sharp divide between owners, slum-dwellers and the commercial and manufacturing sectors.
At one end of the spectrum are slum dwellers who have been waiting for their dream home in their dream city for nearly 20 years, and at the other end are landowners who don’t want to be part of the slum redevelopment. . Seeking self-development for the last few years. Field experience (the author’s previous involvement with the commercial and manufacturing sector) points the movement of the commercial and manufacturing sector around her MMR region. Therefore, it makes no sense to be outright against it at this point. At the same time, the announcement of the regeneration of unqualified tenements (tenements without documentary evidence, high-rise tenements, rentals) on the Wadala salt plan land is noteworthy.
That’s why it’s important to get involved in planning to create projects that target the most vulnerable and disenfranchised people.
There are many reasons to believe that DRP will be implemented at this time.
First, its strategic location in Dharavi with connectivity to Central, Port and Western Lines and proximity to Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) makes it ideal for redevelopment at this time. It’s a place. BKC has become an uncontrollable monster. The commercial zone is almost full and the residential zone outnumbers the very rich. BKC was a greenfield project with no development constraints on 370 acres of low-lying land. Mumbai Metropolitan Development Authority (MMRDA) he was appointed planning authority in 1977 and divided into zones from A to I he planned 370 hectares of land. Of the total land area, approximately 40% was identified for commercial purposes, followed by 37% for social purposes and 23% for residential purposes.
Then, in 1998, detailed plans were drawn up to develop Zone G as an international financial business center. , moved to BKC. offer A job around 2 lakh rupees. It is also a popular destination known for its fine dining.
In addition, Reliance Geo World Drive Mall and Reliance Geo Convention Center were opened last year and this year respectively (RIL opened India’s largest convention center at Geo World Center with 5G network). BKC has established itself as one of his key nodes in the global economic network. However, it can be difficult to manage, hollow, and require complementary infrastructure. The government sees BKC as a breadwinner and keeps prices high in the area to maximize revenue. However, it also acts as a deterrent for private developers who find it financially infeasible to purchase land and build projects here.
Residential development has not progressed as expected, and the spread of social amenities has been slower than expected. An auction for parcel number C65 (originally a residential lot) was recently held for commercial activity, but there were no bidders. Also, previous auctions were held to lease three of his parcels of C44, C48 and C68. They were later put into a club, and the fact that no bidders were found indicates that it was higher than the multinationals.
Over the next few years, metro connections will be developed between the various business districts of the MMR region, making it an area in demand again for investment. In this case, BKC will keep the current price, but we need the infrastructure around BKC to make up for it. Therefore, Dharavi becomes an ideal location for redevelopment at this point. Simply put, the neighborhood needs to be developed to standards to encourage investment in BKC. This can be done by releasing land in Dharavi. The redevelopment of Dharavi aims to do the same while replacing the lives and livelihoods of Dharavi’s current residents.
Second, we wait too long for qualified slum dwellers to own a home in our dream city. At one level, there is impatience among slum dwellers and pressure on the government to allow Dharavi landowners to self-develop. The government does not allow self-development because it would result in the loss of the best long-term profitable land. Eligible slum-dwellers don’t show much objection as many of their demands have been met.The 2018 GR and the latest GR offer larger carpet areas, more Corpus Funds, extended Space was found on the deadline date given, due to demand from developers to purchase additional space for a fee.
For commercial properties – 225 square feet of real estate will be available and the rest can be purchased at cost. Hazardous industries cannot find space in the project and the build-up area (BUA) for potter’s business activities is 225 sq ft, 225 sq ft residential area is free and additional space is available for a fee. You can buy it. Back-to-back commercial tenements are allowed after exhausting all available space. The first floor is also used as a potter’s commercial facility. Dharavi has multiple layers of complexity: slum-dwellers (owners), slum-dwellers (renters), landowners, non-slum-dwellers, and former residents.
In comparison, slum dwellers seem to live on more favorable terms than others. Commercial and manufacturing facilities are getting live deals under Dharavi Redevelopment. The cluster now houses his 20,000 small-scale operating units in leather exports, textile and zari operations, glass, pottery and recycling, contributing to Dharavi’s billion dollar economy.
Third, the government (SPV), as the main investor, is likely to receive huge revenues from the redevelopment. Apart from that, the economic activity started after the redevelopment will be a regular source of income for the government from property taxes and other levies from commercial activities. Over the past 20 years, project cost overruns have increased sixfold. The cost estimate for the project has increased 6.5 times from 4,000 SEK in 2004 to 26,000 SEK in 2019, with the current estimated cost of 28,000 SEK. The profit that the railway will make in exchange for 45 acres of land is estimated at close to 1,100 kronor, or only 0.2% of the profit.
Fourth, investors are offered an unimaginable array of concessions. It is exempt from developer premiums, inspection fees, and goods and services tax. This is the carrot that attracts investors.According to the latest news, 11 companies have expressed interest in the pre-bid meeting and bidding process, with the deadline for bids set at Expansion Until the 15th.
Recently, a BJP minister claimed that at least three companies that showed interest would qualify for the project.
What is it for workers?
Dharavi is home to over one million people, many of whom will lose their livelihoods and habitat. Regarding eligibility, ground floor tenement residents must demonstrate that the tenement existed prior to the year 2000. As with all slum redevelopments, anything rented or owned on a high floor is not eligible. FSI is 5 (including FSI that is fungible). Such a high FSI coupled with Dharavi’s high density results in high-rise, high-density buildings that are impossible to maintain for Dharavi’s workers. Over the years, many people find it difficult to maintain, rent or sell tenements, forcing them to systematically evict from city centers.
In addition, this high-rise, high-density redevelopment is also a hotbed for infectious diseases. According to a study commissioned by MMRDA’s Environmental Improvement Association, in Gobandi, one in ten of him suffers from tuberculosis. His MMRDA survey, conducted by Doctors For You among his 4080 households in his three low-income resettlement colonies in Govandi and Mankhurd, suggests subhuman living conditions under the guise of rehabilitation.
Poorly ventilated homes with little air circulation are breeding grounds for disease (1 in 10 people living in slum rehab colonies have tuberculosis, attributed to lack of air and light). Dharavi rehabilitation should not follow the mantra of high FSI and high density. Development management standards must be followed without ruling out project feasibility.
At the same time, the most vulnerable without talks, the unfit, and those on rent will find space in rental housing in the Wadala Saltfields. She one of the most vulnerable people in the housing sector, renters and unfits, need to find homes on land that acts like Mumbai’s sponge. Such developments need to create adequate open spaces so that a portion of the land continues to act as a sponge to avoid flooding.
DRP has focused on the need for rental housing in cities. The need for rental housing has been a neglected area of the housing debate, and it is only in recent decades that policy documents have mentioned rental housing. Alas, everything remains on paper. It took a pandemic like COVID to announce much-needed rental housing plans as a relief for migrant workers. DRP allows the city to develop rental housing for the most vulnerable.
In conclusion, DRP’s overall premise sheds light on many things. It is the first time in the history of the DRP that there has been talk of rehabilitation for people who do not qualify for affordable rental housing. has many areas of ambiguity. Civil society organizations working with informal workers should raise these issues.
Also, high-density, high-rise developments have not acted as ideal rehabilitation. Rethinking the type and place of rehabilitation requires a fresh rethink. This review should not be from a project feasibility filter, but rather to provide workers with dignified housing and living.
Additionally, a development monster like BKC needs complementary infrastructure around it in order to sustain itself. This also marks a shift from all forms of manufacturing to services. The ripple effect of this kind of development will produce cities that house a particular class rather than workers. Millions of workers lose their livelihoods and habitats in the process. can we afford it? We need to consider whether service cities are sustainable in the Indian context or whether a mix of service and manufacturing cities is necessary.
The author is a member of the Habitat and Livelihood Welfare Association & Working People’s Alliance. All views are personal.